Development of the Test Instrument for Measuring Students' Critical Thinking Abilities on Fluid Material

Ni Nyoman Sri Putu Verawati, Saiful Prayogi, Muhammad Yusril Yusup, Hafsah Taha


This study aimed to develop a test instrument to measure students' critical thinking skills on fluid material.  Characteristics of the instrument and its validity estimation are also described. This research and development study employed five stages of research, namely information collecting (literature review and preparation of the subject matter), planning (defining and formulating objectives), developing preliminary form of the test instrument, preliminary field testing (expert validation), and main product revision (in accordance with the recommendations in the preliminary field testing). The content and construct validity were estimated by expert validation. Results of the instrument validation showed average scores for each component (content validity index of 4.63 and construct validity of 4.75), both of which are in the very valid category. The final result of the instrument validation is 4.69 (very valid if: Va > 4.21), with 98.7% reliability. Description of the study result is presented further in this article.


Test Instrument, Critical Thinking Skills, Fluid Material

Full Text:



Borg, W. R., & Gall, M. D. (1983). Educational research: An introduction (4th ed). White Plains, NY: Longman Inc.

Borich, G. D. (1994). Observation skills for effective teaching. Columbus, OH: Merrill

Brookhart, S. M. (2010). How to assess higher-order thinking in your classroom. Virginia: ASCD Publication.

Butler, H. A. (2012). Halpern critical thinking assessment predicts real-world outcomes of critical thinking. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25(5), 721-729.

Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52(4), 281-302.

Ennis, R. H., & Weir, E. (1985). The Ennis -Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test. Pacific Grove, CA: Midwest Publications.

Ennis, R. H., Millman, J., & Tomko, T. N. (1985). Cornell Critical Thinking Tests. Pacific Grove, CA: Midwest Publications.

Facione, P. A. (1990). The California Critical Thinking Skills Test-college level. Technical report #2. Factors predictive of CT skills. Millbrae, CA: California Academic Press.

Facione, P. A., & Facione, N. C. (1992). The California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory. Millbrae, CA: California Academic Press.

Facione, P. (2011). Critical thinking. What it is and why its counts. Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Press.

Halpern, D. F. (2010). Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment manual. Vienna, Austria: Schuhfried GmbH.

Herpiana, R. & Rosidin, U. (2018). Development of instrument for assessing students’ critical and creative thinking ability. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 948, 1-7.

Horn, S. & Veermans, K. (2019). Critical thinking efficacy and transfer skills defend against ‘fake news’ at an international school in Finland. Journal of Research in International Education, 18(1), 1-19.

Jabbarifar, T. (2009). The importance of classroom assessment and evaluation in educational system. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of Teaching and Learning (pp. 1–9). Malaysia: INTI University College.

Lai, E. (2011). Critical thinking: A literatur review. Pearson Research Reports. Retrieved from ReviewFINAL.pdf

Liu, O. L., Frankel, L., & Roohr, K.C. (2014). Assessing critical thinking in higher education: Current state and directions for next-generation assessment. ETS Research Report, 14(10), 1-23.

Megawati, Wardani, A. K., & Hartatiana. (2020). Kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi siswa SMP dalam menyelesaikan soal matematika model PISA. Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 14(1): 15-24.

Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Foy, P., & Hooper, M. (2015). TIMSS 2015 international results. Boston: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center.

Norris, S. (1989). Can we test validly for critical thinking? Educational Researcher, 18(9), 21-26.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2017). PISA 2015 results: Collaborative problem solving (Volume V). Paris: OECD Publishing.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2002). Learning for the 21st century: A report and mile guide for 21st century skills. Tucson, AZ: Author.

Prayogi, S., Yuanita, L. & Wasis. (2017). Critical-Inquiry-Based-Learning: Model of learning to promote critical thinking ability of pre-service teachers. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 947, 1-6, doi:10.1088/1742-6596/947/1/012013

Prayogi, S., Yuanita, L. & Wasis. (2018). Critical-Inquiry-Based-Learning: A model of learning to promote critical thinking among prospective teachers of physic. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 15(1), 43-56.

Prayogi, S., Muhali, Yuliyanti, S., Asy’ari, M., Azmi, I. & Verawati, N. N. S. P. (2019). The effect of presenting anomalous data on improving student’s critical thinking ability. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 14(6), 133-137.

Prayogi, S. (2019). Pengembangan model pembelajaran Critical-Inquiry-Based-Learning untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis mahasiswa. Disertasi. Surabaya: Universitas Negeri Surabaya.

Scully, D. (2017). Constructing multiple-choice items to measure higher-order thinking. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 22(4), 1-13.

Sireci, S. G. (1998). Gathering and analyzing content validity. Educational Assessment 5(4), 299-321.

Sudrajat, A.K., Saptasari, M. & Tenzer, A. (2018). Developing formative assessment instruments to measure students’ critical thinking ability in human circulatory system material for 11th grade students of UM High School Laboratorium. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan, 18(3), 243-251.

Verawati, N. N. S. P., Prayogi, S., Gummah, S., Muliadi, A. & Yusup, M. Y. (2019). The effect of conflict-cognitive strategy in inquiry learning towards pre-service teachers’ critical thinking ability. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 8(4), 529-537

Wahyudi, Verawati, N. N. S. P., Ayub, S., & Prayogi, S. (2019). The effect of scientific creativity in inquiry learning to promote critical thinking ability of prospective teachers. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 14(14), 122-131.

Watson, G., & Glaser, E. M. (1980). Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, forms A and B manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Wiliam, D. (2013). Assessment: The bridge between teaching and learning. Voices from the Middle, 21(2), 15-20.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Ni Nyoman Sri Putu Verawati, Saiful Prayogi, Muhammad Yusril Yusup, Hafsah Taha

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This journal has been indexed in:


Creative Commons License
J-PS (Prisma Sains: Jurnal Pengkajian Ilmu dan Pembelajaran Matematika dan IPA IKIP Mataram) p-ISSN (print) 2338-4530, e-ISSN (online) 2540-7899 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

[Valid Atom 1.0]